European regulation 1371/2007 does not stipulate that railway companies have to compensate you if you have suffered additional financial damage as a result of a train delay.
You travel from Gent-Sint-Pieters to Brussels Airport by train. You arrive at Brussels Airport-Zaventem station with a delay of more than two hours due to a technical defect on the train. You miss your flight and have to purchase new flight tickets. In this case, you are entitled to compensation of 100% of the price of your ticket (one way).
As regards the indirect damage (in the example: the purchase of new flight tickets), the various railway companies will decline any responsibility.
Although the validity of such provisions in the conditions of carriage is debatable, the railway companies currently refuse to compensate any form of indirect damage.